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Literature Review

Causes of Autism

Over the years there have been many research on autism and the development of autism. Through various classes and the little that we know on autism, it is been said that it is not genetic. It is not a disability people are born with or can it be identified in the first year of a child’s life. Autism is developmental disability that is triggered and onset when a child is at the age of two. While looking at different articles they have something different to say about the new research that are being conducted on autism and its prognoses and diagnoses.

In one article it talks about how pediatricians are not conducting proper screening to diagnose autism. So there is research being conducted to see why screenings are not effective. They are contributed children not being properly screen to them not having access to pediatricians, depending on where they live. Pediatricians also face many challenges when having to diagnose children with ASD, they sometimes do not have much to fall back on when diagnosing because every case is different (Ip, 2015). Through proper screening and better insight on the development of autism, one can be properly diagnosed. However if people do not have access to medical doctors because of where they live or doctors are not fully aware of the disability then it will affect the screening. Since every case about autism is different once proper screening is doctors can begin to create markers to pinpoint the onset of autism.

In the second article which was also published this year states that research have shown that children develop autism because of neurons in the brain. In one study in particular it stated that “neurobeachin has been identified as a candidate gene for autism patients. Mutations in the synaptic adhesion protein cell adhesion molecule 1 are also associated with autism spectrum disorder” (Yasuko, 2015). This article also discuss about how proteins in the brain play a key role as factor for developing autism. So therefore through research scientist have found that there is some chemical reaction in the brain that is an onset for the development of autism. They believe that there is a connection during that point.

In the third article it speaks about how autism is developed due to mothers having caesarian section. It is stated that “delivery by caesarian Section is associated with a modest increased odds of ASD, and possibly ADHD, when compared to vaginal delivery. Although the effect may be due to residual confounding, the current and accelerating rate of caesarian section implies that even a small increase in the odds of disorders, such as ASD” (Curran, 2015). This article in particular lead me to thinking what is it with caesarian that can cause some children to develop autism and others do not. I begin to wound is it connected to medicine that is given to them that affects chemicals in the brain, and drain activity connection. Is it something in the child’s developing environment and the way they are being raised that riggers this onset at age two.

These three article each focus on different research and findings that contribute to autism or that lack the diagnoses of autism earlier on in a child life. With that being said, based off of what I have researched thus far, I would like to further conduct research on what happens to a child at the age of two that makes autism so visible. Is because of the child’s environment, did something go off in the brain or is it simply because there is something with in the genes that is suppressed and because of the way a child develops it becomes dominant.



Curran, E. A. (2015). Research Review: Birth by caesarean section and development of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry.

Ip, A. S. (2015). Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians. paediatrics and child health.

Yasuko, K. A. (2015). Neuron Membrane Trafficking and Protein Kinases Involved in Autism and ADHD. Interntational journal for molecular science.



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